OFFICIAL figures released today by UK labels’ association the BPI, based on Official Charts Company data, show that the continuing surge in audio streaming and accelerating demand for vinyl LPs helped achieve another successful year for British music.
Using the music industry’s standard Album Equivalent Sales (AES)(1) metric to calculate the overall volume of music consumption, a total of 123 million albums or their equivalent were either streamed, purchased on physical format, or downloaded by UK music consumers in 2016.
This represents a 1.5 per cent rise on 2015, which, it should be noted, was a ‘53-week’ chart year benefitting from an extra week’s trading.
Like-for-like growth in unit volume would, in fact, have been higher at four per cent(2).
The total volume of music consumed in 2016 corresponds to an estimated retail value expected to be worth approximately £1 billion(3).
Geoff Taylor, chief executive BPI and BRIT Awards, said: “Growth in UK music consumption in 2016 was fuelled by the explosive rise in audio streaming, which has increased 500 per cent since 2013, and relative resilience from physical formats.
“Led by sales of David Bowie, demand for vinyl jumped to levels not seen since the start of the ’90s, and fans also bought and collected music on CD that they are discovering and enjoying through streaming services in ever larger numbers.
“We believe this performance is indicative of the promise of a new era for music, where recorded music’s investments in a digital future fuel compelling benefits for fans, artists and the entire music ecosystem.”
Volume of audio streaming surges and hits milestone of one billion streams in a week
Demand in 2016 was fuelled by a staggering 45 billion audio streams served through digital services including Spotify, Apple, Deezer and Tidal – a 68 per cent rise on 2015 and an increase of 500 per cent if you go back to 2013.
Such a volume works out at well over 1,500 audio streams for each of the UK’s 27 million households(4).
Remarkably, this figure excludes the huge number of streams on video platforms such as YouTube, which are not reflected in Official Charts data – otherwise this total would be greater(5).
Underlining the growing ascendancy of streams as the format of choice for many fans, December 20166 witnessed the key milestone of one billion audio streams taking place for the first time in a single week.
To set this growth in context, weekly streams totalled less than 200 million at the start of 2014.
As a result of this dramatic increase, audio streaming now accounts for well over a third (36.4 per cent) of all UK music consumption.
Vinyl goes through three million unit mark and hits heights not seen since the start of the ’90s
Though still niche in terms of its size within the overall recorded music market7, vinyl enjoyed another stellar year, with over 3.2 million LPs sold – a 53 per cent rise on last year and the highest annual total in a quarter of a century since 19918, when Simply Red’s Stars topped the annual best-seller charts.
This represents the ninth consecutive year that demand for vinyl – boosted by events such as Record Store Day, expanded retail floor-space, and with a new audience among younger fans – has shown growth.
A far cry from the low-point of 2007, when just over 200,000 LPs were purchased.
The depth of the vinyl revival is illustrated by the fact that over 30 titles sold more than 10,000 copies in 2016, compared to just ten in 2015. Vinyl LPs now account for nearly five per cent of the albums market.
The biggest-selling vinyl artist was David Bowie, with five albums posthumously featuring in the top-30 best-sellers, including his Mercury Prize shortlisted Blackstar, which was 2016’s most popular vinyl recording, ahead of Amy Winehouse’s Back To Black, selling more than double the number of copies of 2015’s best seller on vinyl – Adele’s 25.
Enduring ‘multi-channel’ appeal of physical formats
The demand for vinyl illustrates the enduring appeal of music on physical formats, particularly in a multi-channel world where some consumers like to discover and enjoy new music and established repertoire through streaming, but are also tempted to buy, own and collect the recordings they love on LP and on CD.
Sales of CDs declined by over a tenth in 2016 (-11.7 per cent(2)). However, the format remains relatively resilient with many consumers who continue to be drawn to its collectible appeal or regard it as a desirable gift item, particularly when presented in deluxe box-set packaging. Combined with vinyl LP, CD and physical formats still account for just over 41 per cent of UK music consumption in volume terms.
Vanessa Higgins, CEO Regent Street and Gold Bar Records, and an independent label member of BPI Council, said: “Fans are listening to music in so many ways now – we’ve definitely entered a multi-channel era.
“Millennials, who’ve grown up digital, are increasingly choosing to experience both current and heritage artists on vinyl also.
“Meanwhile, older baby-boomers are embracing streaming alongside their record collections. And, impressively, in between all that, there is still more than enough space for the CD, which remains popular both with upcoming artists, who need an attractive physical product, and consumers, who still like to gift, collect and own the recordings they love.”
Downloads yield to streaming as their share of digital decreases
Downloaded albums and singles continued their downward trend as streaming takes over as the main digital platform, and they now account for just over a fifth (22.6 per cent) of music consumption volume in the UK.
Adele and Coldplay lead UK domination of artist charts, but Michael Ball and Alfie Boe, Little Mix, Jess Glynne, Calvin Harris, Rick Astley, Robbie Williams, The Rolling Stones and The 1975 also enjoy strong years
Although there were no new album releases from a number of artists who have been more or less ‘ever-present’ in recent best-seller lists, most notably the likes of Ed Sheeran, Sam Smith and Paloma Faith, there were plenty of blockbuster successes that boosted the market.
British acts that struck a particular chord included Michael Ball and Alfie Boe, whose duets album Together was the year’s best-selling new release artist album and the Official Christmas No.1 album.
Little Mix and Olly Murs enjoyed Platinum(9) certified albums that also sold well on CD, while The 1975 topped both the UK and US charts. BRITs Icon, Robbie Williams, The Rolling Stones, and a well-received comeback LP from Rick Astley also featured in the top-20.
Global best-selling new releases from Drake – who was also the year’s most streamed artist – Beyoncé, Michael Bublé and Sia also helped to propel the market in 2016, while a further boost came from the continuing success of titles released in 2015, not least Adele’s 25, which was the UK’s best-selling artist album for the second year running, and has now sold a total of 3.2 million copies in the UK.
Adele’s success in claiming the top spot means that it is now 12 years in a row that the year’s best-selling artist album has come from a British act10.
Justin Bieber’s high-profile tour helped to drive continuing demand for Purpose – the UK’s most streamed album of 2016 – while Coldplay’s A Head Full of Dreams became a UK million-seller. Jess Glynne’s I Cry When I Laugh is also well on its way to achieving million-selling status at home, and James Bay’s Chaos and the Calm is additionally now well past 2x Platinum status(9).
Rock was well represented on the Official Albums chart, with Biffy Clyro, Green Day and Blink 182 enjoying No.1s, as did Radiohead, Catfish and The Bottlemen and one of the breakout acts of the year, Blossoms.
Sadly, the music world lost a number of its most iconic figures in 2016, most notably including David Bowie, Prince, Sir George Martin, Leonard Cohen and, just recently, George Michael. The resulting public response prompted an increase in demand for their work, though, being a new release, there is little doubt Bowie’s Blackstar would have sold in large volumes in any event.
The success of Skepta’s Mercury Prize-winning Konnichiwa, which has been certified Gold(9) by the BPI having sold well over 100,000 copies since its release in May 2016, demonstrates that grime is now fast becoming a commercial force to rank alongside the cultural impact it has enjoyed over the past decade.
A trend that is further illustrated by the certified awards status earned by the singles, Shut Up, and Know Me From, released by Stormzy, whose debut album is one of the most anticipated for 2017.
Other music genres are also breaking through commercially, including British country music. This was amply demonstrated by the success of twin sister duo Ward Thomas, which became the first ever UK country act to score a UK No.1 album with Cartwheels, while another UK country act, The Shires, saw their album My Universe become the fastest-selling country album by a UK artist when reaching No.3 in the Official Charts.
Now 95 is 2016’s best-selling album title overall, as Now compilations enjoy three albums in the year’s top five
The year’s best-selling album overall, however, was Now That’s What I Call Music 95, which is now well on its way to achieving 3x Platinum status(9), while both Now 93 and Now 94 also made 2016’s top-five as 2x Platinum(9) certified titles.
Drake’s One Dance dominates singles charts, with Britain’s Calvin Harris also in year’s top five and Clean Bandit enjoying longest No.1 run by a UK act in nine years
North American artists – most notably Drake, whose One Dance, featuring Wizkid & Kyla, was No.1 for a remarkable 15 weeks and accumulated over 141 million audio streams – dominated the singles best-seller lists for the first part of the year.
Britain’s Calvin Harris’s This is What You Came For, featuring Rihanna, claimed a place in the year’s top five most-streamed tracks overall, while late 2016 saw a run of UK No.1 successes.
James Arthur, Little Mix and Clean Bandit all topped the Official Singles Chart in the final quarter of 2016, with the latter’s Rockabye claiming the Official Christmas No.1 on its way to achieving the longest consecutive stay at No.1 (eight weeks and counting) for a UK artist since Leona Lewis with Bleeding Love in 2007.
Gennaro Castaldo firstname.lastname@example.org +44 (0)20 7803 1326 / +44 (0)7801 194 139
Notes for editors:
1. Album Equivalent Sales (AES) is a standard music industry metric that enables sales and streaming formats to be measured on a comparable basis so that total music consumption can effectively be gauged and reported. The analysis for this report/release converts all streams and sales data to ‘Album Equivalent Sales’ (AES).
Physical album and digital album sales data have been included as per the Official Charts Company database, but the cumulative total for individual track sales has been divided by ten (to provide a ‘Track Equivalent Album’ (TEA) figure) while the audio streaming total has been divided by 1,000 (as 100 streams=one track sale and ten track sales=one album) to provide a Stream Equivalent Albums (SEA) figure.
2. The reporting year is based on the Official Charts sales data weeks 1-52 (this year ending 29 December 2016). The four per cent like-for-like figure to reflect 2015’s 53-week chart year was achieved by removing week 1 from 2015 – and measuring weeks two – 53 in 2015 against weeks one – 52 in 2016. The 11.7 per cent drop in CD sales reported may, in part, be more pronounced due to the exceptional 2.5 million sales of Adele’s 25 in Q4 2015.
3. Retail value reflects estimated retail prices/subscriptions to streaming services but excludes estimated revenues from ad-supported audio streams. In recent years, the BPI has sought to give a more detailed breakdown of estimated retail values by format, but with streaming growing so quickly, it is becoming more difficult to give an accurate estimate of the value of streaming subscriptions. The BPI will instead look to give a value update when confirmed trade value figures become available in 2017, but for now is just reporting on volume figures. ERA may, however, estimate retail values.
4. Office of National Statistics (ONS) – 27m UK households: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/families/bulletins/familiesandhouseholds/2015-11-05
5. Streams on video platforms – 2016 data currently not available – general estimate/remark only based on 2015 trends.
6. One billion streams (1,032,014,800) were achieved in December 2016. This figure represents ‘un-matched’ streams (as opposed to ‘matched’ streams) – reflecting all audio streams, even those where the song title is unknown by the Official Charts, so that overall consumption is captured.
7. Vinyl represents approximately 2.6 per cent of the overall UK recorded music market based on AES, and around 4.7 per cent of total album sales.
8. 1991 Vinyl chart year calculation: The Official Chart Company began tracking retail sales in 1994. An estimate has therefore been made on the basis of our own trade shipment data to establish when retail sales of LPs last reached the 3m threshold.
9. Certified Awards – Platinum certification is awarded for 300,000 album sales (reflecting streams also); Gold = 100,000 sales; and Silver = 60,000.
10. Official Charts best-selling UK album: 2005 – 2016 – Adele ’25’ (2016), Adele ‘25’ (2015), Ed Sheeran ‘X’ (2014), One Direction ‘Midnight Memories’ (2013), Emeli Sandé ‘Our Version Of Events’ (2012), Adele ‘21’ (2011), Take That ‘Progress’ (2010), Susan Boyle ‘I Dreamed A Dream’ (2009), Duffy ‘Rockferry’ (2008), Amy Winehouse ‘Back To Black’ (2007), Snow Patrol ‘Eyes Open’ (2006), and James Blunt ‘Back To Bedlam’ (2005).
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